# Help

## Contents

• Search for the term to insure the page does not already exist.
• Is a separate page justified?
• Perhaps it is better to add the text to an existing page, especially if it is only a small amount of text.

There are multiple ways to add a page:

• Search for the page (as you should have already done). When a page is not yet added, a link title "Create the Article" will appear. Select the link and Edit the page.
• Click any red link on the site. A red link is used to display a page that has been linked but not yet added. After clicking the link, a link title "Create the Article" will appear. Select the link and Edit the page.

### Sections, paragraphs, lists and lines

What it looks like What you type

Note: Single equal signs give the highest level heading, like the page title; usually projects have the convention not to use them.

New section

Subsection

Sub-subsection


== New section ==

=== Subsection ===

==== Sub-subsection ====


Newline

A single newline has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

(<p> disables this paragraphing until </p> or the end of the section)

(in Cologne Blue two newlines and a div tag give just one newline; in the order newline, div tag, newline, the result is two newlines)


A single
newline
has no
effect on the
layout.

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.
You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

(The HTML tag <br> is sufficient. The system produces the XHTML code <br />.)

You can break lines<br>
without starting a new paragraph.
• Lists are easy to do:
• start every line with a star
• more stars means deeper levels
• A newline
• in a list

marks the end of the list.

• Of course
• you can
• start again.
* Lists are easy to do:
** start every line with a star
*** more stars means deeper levels
*A newline
*in a list
marks the end of the list.
*Of course
*you can
*start again.


1. Numbered lists are also good
1. very organized
2. easy to follow
2. A newline
3. in a list

marks the end of the list.

1. New numbering starts
2. with 1.
# Numbered lists are also good
## very organized
## easy to follow
#A newline
#in a list
marks the end of the list.
#New numbering starts
#with 1.

• You can even do mixed lists
1. and nest them
• like this
or have newlines
inside lists
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this<br>or have newlines<br>inside lists
• You can also
• break lines
inside lists
like this
* You can also
**break lines<br>inside lists<br>like this
Definition list
list of definitions
item
the item's definition
; Definition list : list of definitions
; item : the item's definition
A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

• This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on Talk pages.
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

IF a line of plain text starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines won't wrap;
ENDIF
this is useful for:
* pasting preformatted text;
* algorithm descriptions;
* program source code
* ASCII art;
* chemical structures;

WARNING If you make it wide, you force the whole page to be wide and hence less readable. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.

 IF a line of plain text starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines won't wrap;
ENDIF
this is useful for:
* pasting preformatted text;
* algorithm descriptions;
* program source code
* ASCII art;
* chemical structures;
Centered text.
<center>Centered text.</center>
A horizontal dividing line: above

and below.

(However, in most cases a section header is more useful. The horizontal dividing line should only be used if what follows is logically part of the same section; otherwise that part would be hidden in the TOC.)
A horizontal dividing line: above
----
and below. 

What it looks like What you type
Sue is reading the video policy.
• First letter of target is automatically capitalized.
• Internally spaces are automatically represented as underscores (typing an underscore has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).

Thus the link above is to http://meta.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_policy, which is the page with the name "Video policy".

Sue is reading the [[video policy]].

Link to a section on a page, e.g. List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco. When section linking does not work the link is treated as link to the page, i.e. it will link to the top; this applies for:

[[List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco]].

(This is called a piped link).

Link target and link label are different: [[User:Larry Sanger|answers]].
Endings are blended into the link: official positions, genes
Endings are blended
into the link: [[official position]]s, [[gene]]s

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Village pump.

The server fills in the part after the | when you save the page. Next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. A preview interprets the abbreviated form correctly, but does not expand it yet in the edit box. Press Save and again Edit, and you will see the expanded version. The same applies for the following feature.

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]]. 
Automatically hide namespace:
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].
When adding a comment to a Talk page,

you should sign it. You can do this by adding three tildes for your user name:

Karl Wick

or four for user name plus date/time:

Karl Wick 08:10 Oct 5, 2002 (UTC)
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it. You can do this by
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
The weather in London is a page that doesn't exist yet.
• You can create it by clicking on the link.
• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• Have a look at how to start a page guide and the naming conventions page for your project.
[[The weather in London]] is a page
that doesn't exist yet.

Redirect one article title to another by putting text like this in its first line.

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

A link to the page on the same subject in another language or, more generally, to a page on another wiki: fr:Wikipédia:Aide. For more info see m:Help:Interwiki linking.

[[fr:Wikipédia:Aide]], [[:fr:Wikipédia:Aide]]
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]] and
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
External links:
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia],
[http://www.nupedia.com]
Or just give the URL: http://www.nupedia.com.
• In the URL all symbols must be among: A-Z a-z 0-9 ._\/~%- &#?!=()@ \x80-\xFF. If a URL contains a different character it should be converted; for example, ^ has to be written ^ (to be looked up in ASCII). A blank space can also be converted into an underscore.
Or just give the URL:
http://www.nupedia.com.

ISBN 0123456789X

RFC 123

Sound


[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]

Use links for dates, so everyone can set their own display order. Use Special:Preferences to change your own date display setting.
[[July 20]], [[1969]] , [[20 July]] [[1969]]
and [[1969]]-[[07-20]]

will all appear as 20 July 1969 if you set your date display preference to 1 January 2001.

### Images

What it looks like What you type
A picture: Image:Wiki.png
• For many projects, only images that have been uploaded to the same project or the Commons can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list
A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png]]

or, with alternative text (strongly encouraged)

[[Image:Wiki.png|Wikipedia
- The Free Encyclopedia]]


Web browsers render alternative text when not displaying an image -- for example, when the image isn't loaded, or in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing alternative text. See Extended image syntax for more options.

Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: Image:Wiki.png

[[:Image:Wiki.png]]





### Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasize, strongly, very strongly.

• These are double and triple apostrophes, not double quotes.
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''',
'''''very strongly'''''.

You can also write italic and bold if the desired effect is a specific font style rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulas:

F = ma
• However, the difference between these two methods is not very important for graphical browsers, and many people choose to ignore it.
You can also write <i>italic</i>
and <b>bold</b> if the desired effect is a
specific font style rather than emphasis, as
in mathematical formulas:
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b>
A typewriter font for technical terms.
A typewriter font for
<tt>technical terms</tt>.
You can use small text for captions.
You can use <small>small text</small>
for captions.
You can strike out deleted material

and underline new material.

You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

Umlauts and accents: (See MediaWiki User's Guide: Creating special characters)
è é ê ë ì í

À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ


è é ê ë ì í

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

Punctuation:
¿ ¡ « » § ¶
† ‡ • - – —

&iquest; &iexcl; &laquo; &raquo; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; - &ndash; &mdash;

Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥

£ ¤
&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;

Subscript: x2

Superscript: x2 or x²

• The latter method of superscript can't be used in the most general context, but is preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.

1 hectare = 1 E4 m²

Subscript: x<sub>2</sub>
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or x&sup2;

or in projects with the templates sub and sup:

Subscript: x{{sub|2}}
Superscript: x{{sup|2}}

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m²]]

Greek characters:

α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho;  &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Math characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔ ↑

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr; &uarr;

x2   ≥   0 true.
<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;&nbsp;0 true.


Complicated formulae:
$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


For comparison for the following examples:

arrow →

arrow      &rarr;

''italics''
[[link]]

Use <nowiki> to suppress interpretation of wiki markup, but interpret character references and remove newlines and multiple spaces:

<nowiki>arrow      &rarr;

''italics''
[[link]]</nowiki>

Use <pre> to suppress interpretation of wiki markup and keep newlines and multiple spaces, and get typewriter font, but interpret character references:

arrow      →

''italics''

<nowiki><pre>arrow      &rarr;

''italics''
[[link]]
</nowiki></pre>

Use leading space on each line to keep newlines and multiple spaces, and get typewriter font:

arrow      →

italics


</pre>

 arrow      &rarr;

''italics''
[[link]]

Use typewriter font:

arrow →

<tt>arrow      &rarr;</tt>

<tt>''italics''</tt>
<tt>[[link]]</tt>

Show character references:

&rarr;

&amp;rarr;

Commenting page source:
not shown in page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
<!-- comment here -->

## Spacing things out

To space things out, use non-breaking spaces: "&nbsp;" (they also prevent line breaks in the middle of text, this is useful in formulas).

Alternatively, use table syntax, see e.g. Template:Tim and Template:Tim. In these templates there are empty cells for the spacing, but one can also use large cells for the contents, and specify, if needed, the desired alignment. In that case one specifies the amount of space including that taken by one of the items. See e.g Template:Tim.

## Hover box

A hover box without a link is possible: <span title="2.54 cm" style="border-bottom:1px dotted">inch</span> gives inch. With Template:Tcw one can use {{title|2.54 cm|inch}}.

Combined with a link, with an independent hover box text: inch *

Since it depends on the browser whether the hover box appears, it should only be used for non-essential information, for example information one can also find by following the link.

Some browsers show the hover box only a number of seconds. Even though it reappears when the cursor is moved away and back, this makes the hover box unsuitable for long or complicated text. Template:Title

Details of what the browser shows may vary, e.g. "Title:" in front, indentation, code like "</p><p>" being shown, with or without newline, etc.

## Templates

Some part of a page may correspond in the edit box to just a reference to another page, in the form {{name}}, referring to the page "Template:name" (or if the name starts with a namespace prefix, it refers to the page with that name; if it starts with a colon it refers to the page in the main namespace with that name without the colon). This is called a template. For changing that part of the page, edit that other page. Sometimes a separate edit link is provided for this purpose. A convenient way to put such a link in a template is with a template like m:Template:ed. Note that the change also affects other pages which use the same template.

## Page protection

In a few cases the link labeled "Edit this page" is replaced by the text "View source" (or equivalents in the language of the project). In that case the page cannot be edited. Protection of an image page is automatically also protection of the image itself.

## Position-independent wikitext

Wikitext for which the result does not depend on the position in the wikitext page:

• interlanguage links (see also above) - the mutual order is preserved, but otherwise the positions within the page are immaterial
• category specification - ditto
• __NOTOC__, __FORCETOC__, see Help:Section

## Separating edits

When moving or copying a piece of text within a page or from another page, and also making other edits, it is useful to separate these edits. This way the diff function can be usefully applied for checking these other edits.